International maritime regulation decreases sulfur dioxide but increases nitrogen oxide emissions in the North and Baltic Sea
We envision a decline of 4-5% of the volume of the world oceans that can support aerobic habitats even if global temperature targets are only temporarily exceeded.
Ensembles of regional ocean model simulations show the generation of intrinsic variability to be tied to the annual cycle and the activation of tides. This sensitivity can be attributed to"memory"- the central element in the Stochastic Climate Model of Klaus Hasselmann.
It is intuitive that Northern Hemisphere cold extremes would become less intense and frequent not only with global warming but as the Arctic warms at an accelerated pace. However, our analysis of cold extremes in the populated regions shows that little has changed with cold extremes since 1990.