The 1st part of this article was published in the Article link on Oct. 2, 2024 and the 2nd portion is currently under consideration (I'll post a combination of the two parts). The complete version here also refers to proposals for overcoming entropy, fixing the cosmological constant problem, quantum spin, the Electric Dipole Moment, electronics' binary digits, topology, and cosmology’s principle of a flat and simply connected universe implying the cosmos is infinite (according to this article, it's infinite in both space and time). Here's the article -

**Modified Dark Matter, Modified Dark Energy, Deleting Thermodynamic Entropy, and Fixing the Cosmological Constant Problem**

Rodney Bartlett, Information Physics Institute, ResearchGate

**Abstract**

This article is a reply to the lack of evidence in physics for the existence of the particles of Dark Matter which science theorises may constitute approx. 85% of the universe’s matter. While it’s possible to assume dark particles will eventually be detected, remaining open to other explanations is scientifically advisable. A modified view of dark matter is suggested here which is only one dimensional. In that case, it wouldn’t be comprised of particles or have the 3 dimensions of familiar space. It would be one-dimensional (1D) like the binary digits (bits) of one and zero used in electronics. The bits may be thought of as modified dark matter, and the currents resulting from the scientifically plausible possession of an Electric Dipole Moment (possession of both positive and negative electric charges) by all particles can be regarded as modified dark energy. The dark energy would be added to galaxies, preventing the rapidly orbiting stars in a galaxy’s outskirts from flying off into space. What does the recycling of ones and zeros, plus fermions and bosons, mean for thermodynamics and entropy (disorder)? Like a computer screen, the universe is continually refreshed or reloaded**:** the second law of thermodynamics is prevented from getting the upper hand and entropy never causes the universe to decay and experience “heat death”. Particle theorists have realized that the cosmological constant can be interpreted as a measure of the energy density of the vacuum. A major problem is that quantum field theories predict a huge cosmological constant, about 120 orders of magnitude too large. A proposed solution is that real and imaginary bits cancel. Since bits are created by pulses of electricity, the cancellation of the electric pulses on the two axes hide electromagnetism and allow only gravitational interaction between “dark” and ordinary matter.

**Article**

** **

**Figure 1. WICK ROTATION:** “The complex plane reveals i’s special relationship with cycles via the circle of i, also known as Wick rotation. Whenever a point on the complex plane is multiplied by i, it moves a quarter rotation around the origin or center of the plane.” (1) Max Planck assumed that electromagnetic radiation can only be emitted or absorbed in discrete packets, called quanta. He thought of his discovery as nothing more than a math device … a kind of trickery). Einstein developed his explanation of the photoelectric effect from this “mathematical convenience”. So it appears possible that another supposed mathematical trickery (Wick rotation) will find practical application in the future.

In addition to the 4 known dimensions on its x-axis (length, width, height, time), Wick rotation’s vertical y-axis could describe “imaginary space” and “imaginary time”. Imaginary space-time would be described by so-called imaginary numbers like i^2 = -1 and would represent the 5^{th} and 6^{th} dimensions. A modified view of dark matter is suggested here in which imaginary space is not five dimensional but only one dimensional. In that case, it wouldn’t be comprised of particles or have the 3 dimensions of familiar space. It would be one-dimensional (1D) like the binary digits. Referring to Einstein’s 1919 paper which asked if gravitation and electromagnetism play a role in formation of elementary particles (and then undiscovered nuclear-force bosons), there would be no mass-producing interaction of those waves in imaginary space. (2) ^ Wick rotation would symbolize BITS rotating from the y-axis to the x-axis to form fermions and bosons. After fermions and bosons are produced on the horizontal x-axis of “real” space-time, the upper right quadrant of Figure 1 refers to those particles being broken down into BITS again. This is possible because of the Electric Dipole Moment. Just as electrolysis splits water into hydrogen and oxygen, the inherent EDM that can theoretically exist in every particle allows particles to be reverse engineered and become photons and gravitons, and finally the ones and zeros resulting from electrical pulses (see ^ below). The BITS may be thought of as modified dark matter, and the electric EDM currents as modified dark energy which would be added to the mass-energy of galaxies to prevent rapidly orbiting stars in a galaxy’s outskirts flying off into space.

^ Building on a book by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Max Tegmark detailing his Mathematical Universe Hypothesis (3), this is how the author thinks Einstein’s mass-production could work. The one-dimensional (1D) binary digits (bits) of one and zero, used in electronics, encode the 2D Mobius strips ^^ which are viewed on the Internet and, according to this article, incorporate temporal Wick rotation (forming the 4^{th} dimension of time). A couple of Mobius strips pair-up to form a figure-8 Klein bottle (Mobius Doublet) (4) which is immersed in 3D - trillions of strips and bottles respectively produce photons and gravitons which use Einstein’s 1919 paper to interact and form the pressure known as mass - and quantum spin - of both massive electron, quark, Higgs/nuclear-force bosons, etc and the massless gluon. Examples of the quantum spin of particles based on photon spin = 1 and graviton spin = 2**:** a) Photon divided by graviton = spin 1/2 of all matter particles, b) Graviton divided by photon = spin 2/1 which may be responsible for the intense gravity of black holes, c) Using time reversal in case of graviton**: ** 1+2-2 = spin of nuclear-force bosons. It also equals photon spin - establishing a link between gravitation’s spin 2, electromagnetism, and the nuclear forces, d) the Higgs boson’s spin zero can be arrived at through (1-2) + 1 which uses the experimental interpretation of a photon existing in two places simultaneously (it uses the graviton’s spin 2 being taken away from the photon’s spin 1, and the spin motion of 1 being in more than one place at the same time).

^^ A 2017 paper says all of the information in the universe is contained in two-dimensional packages trillions of times smaller than an atom (in this case, the 2D package is the Mobius Strip) (5)

**Proposals Negating Entropy and Normalising Quantum Field Theory’s Value for the Cosmological Constant**

What does the recycling of ones and zeros, plus fermions and bosons, mean for thermodynamics and entropy (disorder)? Like a computer screen, the universe is continually refreshed or reloaded**:** the second law of thermodynamics is prevented from getting the upper hand and entropy never causes the universe to decay and experience “heat death”.

Dark Energy - the EDM currents which decompose particles into bits - would not have the role of causing alleged cosmic expansion.** Its role is to create the binary digits that make up particles. Such a state is consistent with a future theory of Quantum Gravity, or Theory of Everything, uniting not merely General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics but connecting all of space (both known and “dark”) into an event which continually cycles between binary digits forming fermions and bosons, and disassembly of particles into those digital building blocks. Space and time aren’t separable, so every period of the past and future might be included in this future theory of everything. This means fermions and bosons would forever be forming from bits and bits would forever be forming from particles.

** Wick’s circular shape isn’t meant to suggest the universe has a limited size. It follows cosmology’s principle of a flat and simply connected universe implying the cosmos is infinite. (6) Not only would it go on forever spatially but the unity of space and time makes it eternal. Referring to the right side of Figure 2 (the figure-8 Klein bottle or Mobius Doublet) - Note that the Klein bottle’s two different colours (representing positive and negative curvature) fit together to produce the outline of a doughnut. A doughnut (or strictly, a torus) is technically flat. If continuously deformed like a mass of clay, it has the same topological properties as a flat surface (like a piece of paper). When many figure-8 Klein bottles are grouped together, a procedure analogous to computer art's Sky Replacement will cause binary digits to fill in any gaps or holes in the same way that computers can make a sky that's blue from horizon to horizon. But the Klein doesn’t become multiply connected like the doughnut. Only the doughnut’s outline (with its hole filled in) is adopted and the bottle retains the property of simple connectedness. (Informally, if an object in space consists of one piece [the outline of one filled-in doughnut] - and has no holes passing all the way through it, it is called simply-connected.)

###
**Figure 2. Mobius Band (left) and figure-8 Klein Bottle (right). The bottle may be called a Mobius Doublet since it’s formed from the union of two bands. **

(Mobius figure from __https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/79/M%C3%B6bius_Strip.jpg/320px-M%C3%B6bius_Strip.jpg__ Klein fig. from __http://plus.maths.org/content/os/issue26/features/mathart/index__)

** **

**Hidden Electromagnetism in Cosmological Constant**

** **

In this view of the dark universe, electromagnetism is involved, apparently violating dark matter’s property of only interacting gravitationally. Actually, the electromagnetism is present but hidden. The simplest explanation for dark energy is that it is an intrinsic, fundamental energy of space. This is the cosmological constant, usually represented by the Greek letter Λ (Lambda). Particle theorists have realized that the cosmological constant can be interpreted as a measure of the energy density of the vacuum. A major problem is that quantum field theories predict a huge cosmological constant, about 120 orders of magnitude too large. This would need to be almost, but not exactly, cancelled by an equally large term of the opposite sign. Cancellation could be achieved by remembering that the number of binary digits in the space of the x-axis (which is described with positive numbers) is equal to the number of digits in the imaginary space of the y-axis (where the square of imaginary numbers produces negatives). The equally large number of real and imaginary bits cancel by union of their individual identities and “collapsing” into the Complex Plane. In the complex plane, the cancellation of the electric pulses on the two axes hide electromagnetism and allow only gravitational interaction.

**References**

**(1) “The Meaning of Imaginary Time: Creativity’s Dialog with Timelessness” by Kerri Welch (public domain figure supplied by WordPress) **__https://textureoftime.wordpress.com/2015/07/15/the-meaning-of-imaginary-time/__** **(2015)

(2) Albert Einstein, “Spielen Gravitationfelder im Aufbau der Elementarteilchen eine Wesentliche Rolle?” [Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?], Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, [Math. Phys.], 349-356, Berlin, 1919

(3) Max Tegmark, “Our Mathematical Universe” – Random House/Knopf, January 2014

(4) "Imaging maths - Inside the Klein bottle" by Konrad Polthier, __http://plus.maths.org/content/os/issue26/features/mathart/index__ (2003)

(5) Afshordi, N. & Corianò, C. & Delle Rose, L. & Gould, E. & Skenderis, K. From Planck Data to Planck Era: Observational Tests of Holographic Cosmology. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 041301. __https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.04130__ (2017)

(6) "Cosmic Topology" by Jean-Pierre Luminet and Marc Lachi`eze-Rey, Physics Reports 254 [3]: 135–214, __www.arXiv:gr-qc/9605010__ (1995)

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