In recent years, the field of telehealth (also known as “Remote Health Monitoring Systems”) has witnessed remarkable advancements, transforming the way healthcare is delivered. One of the key technologies driving this transformation is wearable sensors.1-3 Wearable sensors provide several advantages in the field of telehealth. These devices offer remote patient monitoring by continually tracking their vital signals (e.g., pulse rate, respiratory cycle, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and body temperature) and activity levels (e.g., walking, running, drinking, eating, and speaking). This real-time data transmission empowers healthcare professionals to remotely diagnose conditions, track patient progress, and intervene promptly if necessary. Wearable sensors expanding the reach of healthcare beyond conventional clinical settings, allow people to receive individualized care in the comfort of their own homes. In recent years, 2D materials and nanoarchitectonics have emerged as key players in the development of wearable sensors, enhancing their functionality and performance.4-6 2D materials are ultra-thin materials that are only a few atoms thick. These materials exhibit unique electrical, optical, electrochemical, and mechanical properties that make them ideal for wearable sensors7-9. Also, these materials can be integrated into fabrics, adhesive patches, or even directly onto the skin, ensuring a seamless user experience. Moreover, they allow for long-term wear without causing discomfort or irritation.
Fig. 1. Overview of this review. 2D materials and nanoarchitectronics-based wearable sensors for telehealth.
In this review, we presented a recent survey on the latest progress of wearable sensors based on 2D materials for remote health monitoring systems (Fig. 1). A comprehensive survey of each kind of wearable sensor (e.g., pressure, strain, electrochemical, temperature, and optoelectronic sensor) and demonstrated how they can be used for everyday activity tracking and remote health monitoring. Awaiting challenges and emergent opportunities are also outlined based on current perspectives. The detailed information of the review is appended below. Thank you very much for your reading.
Vaghasiya, J.V., Mayorga-Martinez, C.C. & Pumera, M. Wearable sensors for telehealth based on emerging materials and nanoarchitectonics. npj Flex Electron 7, 26 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41528-023-00261-4
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- Kalasin, S. & Surareungchai, W. Challenges of emerging wearable sensors for remote monitoring toward telemedicine healthcare, Chem. 95, 1773-1784 (2023)
- Vaghasiya, J.V., Mayorga-Martinez, C.C. & Pumera, M. Telemedicine platform for health assessment remotely by an integrated nanoarchitectonics FePS3/rGO and Ti3C2-based wearable device. npj Flex Electron 6, 73 (2022).
- Zhang, R., Jiang, J. & Wu, W. Wearable chemical sensors based on 2D materials for healthcare applications. Nanoscale 15, 3079-3105 (2023).
- Vaghasiya, J. V., Mayorga-Martinez, C. C., Vyskocil, J., Sofer, Z. & Pumera, M., Integrated biomonitoring sensing with wearable asymmetric supercapacitors based on Ti3C2 MXene and 1T-Phase WS2 Adv. Funct. Mater. 30, 2003673 (2020).
- Pang, Y., Yang, Z., Yang, Y. & Ren, T. L. Wearable electronics based on 2D materials for human physiological information detection. Small 16, 1901124 (2020).
- Bolotsky, A. et al. Two-dimensional materials in biosensing and healthcare: from in vitro diagnostics to optogenetics and beyond, ACS Nano 13, 9781–9810 (2019).
- Rohaizad, N., Mayorga-Martinez, C. C., Fojtu, M., Latiff, N. M. & Pumera, M. Two-dimensional materials in biomedical, biosensing and sensing applications. Soc. Rev., 50, 619-657 (2021).
- Jayakumar, A., Surendranath, A. & PV, M. 2D materials for next generation healthcare applications. Int. J. Pharm. 551, 309-321 (2018).