Biomedical Applications of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials: Recent Progress, Challenges, and Prospects in Highly Sensitive Biosensors

Chemical tunable, tailored Graphene-Based Nanomaterials are engendering a renaissance in the biomedical arena. Bespoke to theranostics the potential of these carbon based nanomaterial platforms with respect to biomedical sensing is elaborated upon.
Published in Materials and Physics
Biomedical Applications of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials: Recent Progress, Challenges, and Prospects in Highly Sensitive Biosensors
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Within the ambit of biomedical research, graphene-based nanomaterials are emerging as transformative tools, showcasing remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential across various applications. With their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties, graphene and its derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), are revolutionizing the development of biosensors, offering unprecedented sensitivity, selectivity, and functionality.

Biosensors, critical analytical devices amalgamating biological components with physicochemical detectors, are experiencing a renaissance with the integration of graphene-based materials. Their high surface area, exceptional conductivity, and robust mechanical properties enhance biosensor performance, facilitating the rapid and precise detection of biomolecules, pathogens, and disease markers. The advance is pivotal in disease diagnosis, enabling early detection of cancer biomarkers and swift identification of bacterial and viral infections, thereby revolutionizing disease management strategies.

Nevertheless, despite the excitement surrounding these inroads, challenges persist. The synthesis of high-quality graphene and the development of scalable manufacturing processes remain critical hurdles. Furthermore, ensuring the biocompatibility and safety of graphene-based materials in medical applications is imperative for their widespread adoption.

Looking ahead, the future of graphene-based biosensors is promising. Continued research endeavours hold the potential to yield more efficient, cost-effective diagnostic tools, transforming healthcare by providing rapid, on-site testing capabilities. As researchers navigate existing challenges, the integration of graphene-based nanomaterials in biomedical applications is poised to expand, heralding a new era of innovation in disease detection and management.

Detection of C6H12O6 using a biosensor based on MBP-rPC and GO-CS. Adapted from open access article[152].

 

Moreover, the use of graphene with semiconductor nanomaterials has opened avenues for groundbreaking applications in energy, optics, and electronics. Various semiconductor nanomaterials, when integrated with graphene-based templates, exhibit enhanced properties, offering unparalleled performance in diverse fields such as Li-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and solar cells. The in-situ crystallization method, in particular, has emerged as a standout approach, revolutionizing the synthesis process and enhancing composite performance for myriad applications.

In the realm of biosensors, nanotechnology continues to catalyze innovation, facilitating the development of high-yield, scalable biosensors with applications spanning healthcare, diagnostics, drug delivery, and environmental monitoring. Graphene-based biosensors, with their advancements in sensitivity, stability, and selectivity, are pivotal in early cancer detection and biomolecule sensing. Fluorescent-based nanoprobes have also contributed significantly, offering high sensitivity and selectivity in detecting various biological and chemical agents, including cancer biomarkers and viruses like those highlighted during the recent COVID-19 pandemic.

Furthermore, the evolution of electrical biosensors, leveraging advancements in materials science and nanotechnology, is driving efficiency and versatility in analytical applications. From detecting neurotransmitters to monitoring cholesterol levels, electrical biosensors offer invaluable insights into physiological processes, underscoring their significance in healthcare, research, and beyond.

In conclusion, the journey of graphene-based nanomaterials in biomedical applications represents a convergence of cutting-edge science and interdisciplinary collaboration. The critical review conducted by Aravinda Baruah and his team underscores the transformative potential of graphene-based biosensors, offering innovative solutions for disease diagnosis and management. As researchers continue to push the boundaries of innovation, the future holds immense promise for graphene-based nanomaterials, shaping a new paradigm in biomedical research and healthcare delivery. The article recently accepted for publication in Discover Nano, represents a significant advancement in the field. Led by Prof. Mahesh Narayan from the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and Hemen Sarma from Bodoland University, the collaborative effort showcases the importance of interdisciplinary cooperation in nanoscience. Arabinda Baruah laid the foundation, while Rachita Newar, Saikat Das, Nitul Kalita, Masood Nath, and Priya Ghosh meticulously crafted the initial manuscript, collected data, and prepared figures. The invaluable input and critical review from Hemen Sarma, Sampath Chinnam, and Mahesh Narayan elevated the quality of the research. This achievement wouldn't have been possible without the support of Gauhati University, Bodoland University, and UTEP, who provided logistical assistance. With no conflicts of interest to declare, this collaboration stands as a testament to the power of teamwork in advancing scientific knowledge.

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Graphene Oxide
Physical Sciences > Materials Science > Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Film > Two-dimensional Materials > Graphene Oxide
Graphene Oxide
Physical Sciences > Physics and Astronomy > Condensed Matter Physics > Nanophysics > Nanomaterial > Two-dimensional Materials > Graphene Oxide
Sensors and Biosensors
Physical Sciences > Materials Science > Materials for Devices > Sensors and Biosensors

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